The Emirate of Abu Dhabi’s rapid population growth alongside global issues such as climate change, have led to a number of pressures on the emirate’s environment. Air quality remains within the limits set by UAE standards, but pollutants are expected to increase with population and economic growth. Groundwater levels are in steady decline, with renewable fresh water resources below the water scarcity threshold to meet the emirate’s needs. While marine water quality is generally good, measures must be taken to prevent the loss of key habitats and further over-exploitation of fisheries, which is currently five times greater than a sustainable level. Rapid development and climate change are threatening the emirate’s biodiversity, however monitoring and conservation programmes and well-managed Protected Areas are working to protect species from various threats.